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2007 Sep 14 - Fri

IP Addressing Best Practices (plus VRF and VLAN ideas)

I've encountered many weird and wonderful IP Addressing schemes during my consulting engagements. During my early years, I'm sure I've contributed some less than optimal ideas into the mix. I'm going to try to mend my ways and introduce some ideas that I think make things better.

Since the advent of Network Address Translation, network designers/architects/engineers have three basic address ranges from which to choose. These address ranges are based upon what is known as RFC 1918 - Address Allocation for Private Internets. The three ranges are:

  • 10.0.0.0/8
  • 172.16.0.0/12
  • 192.168.0.0/16

These are, what some call non-routable addresses. To be more specific, routers routing public addresses, will typically drop (not route) packets having destination addresses from these ranges. Of course, private networks are free to route these addressess as they see fit.

The commentary below assumes a basic knowledge of ip addressing, subnet allocation, host addressing, and routing.

When starting with small networks, a network installer may simply choose some random /24 block from one of the three ranges, and start assigning addresses to all devices on the network to that block. When installing IP Phones, some similar rationale may be used to pick some onother block for the phones. Some rationales that I've see included:

  • let's choose 10.20.10.x for workstations and 10.20.20.x for phones, it keeps them in a similar big block, and keeps the octents nice workable numbers
  • let's choose 10.20.30.x for workstations and 192.168.30.x for phones, it keeps them separate and identifiable, but yet similar in one octet
  • let's add 172.20.30.x as a network management block as it is something completely different and identifiable as being not normal traffic

I'm sure you can come up with many other mechanisms. But what happens when you want to get another office joined in? Then suddenly one has a bunch of different blocks one has to add into a routing table. The lazy answer would be to simply use a statement like 'network 10.0.0.0'. There. All routes for that block are automatically known and added into the routing table (syntax and concept varies a bit depending upon which routing protocol you use).

I'm not sure if that is an optimal solution. I generally like to be very specific about which subnets or supernets I allow into a network table. With addressing scattered through three different address ranges, detailed route table maintenance becomes time consuming.

I like to use route aggregation whenever possible.

I left that statement by itself as it is a very powerful statement. It is also a strong, guiding principle in network/routing table design.

I've used that to come up with a hierarchical addressing structure that works with many of my client sites. There are some scalability issues for very large organizations with many large offices. For the majority of organizations, I think the following scheme works well. As I'm in Bermuda, Bermuda is the center of my universe, and the numbering is based partially on that concept. There is nothing saying you can't change things to match your own geographic realities.

Since the 10/8 address range has the most number of addresses to work with, I use that as a basis for most schemes. The hiearchy I use follows this pattern. I'll break the last three octets into a bit map and assign meanings:

octet bitmap:
00001010.wwwxxxxx.yyyyzzzz.00000000

bitmap meanings:
www:   region (NA (001), SA (010), Europe (011), PacRim (101), Asia (100)
xxxxx: country [ BM 1, CA 2, US 3, UK 1, IR 2 ]
yyyy:  city [ HAM,BM 1; NY,US 1; PA,US 2 ]
zzzz:  VLAN 

The region numberse, starting at 1, are loosley based upon contintents and how inter-country fibres are run. These categories help with aggregation. Within a region, countries are numbered, starting at 1. Within a country, cities are numbered starting at 1. I start the numbering for each bit section at 1, as I use the 000, 00000, and 0000 portions for addressing of inter-region, inter-country, and inter-city links. You can't really aggregate those addresses into the routes of either site, so they need to be kept separate.

Therefore, for a site in Hamilton, Bermuda, addressing would start at 10.33.16.0. Addresses from the range 10.33.0.0 to 10.33.15.255 would be used for inter-city links. Addresses from 10.32.0.0 to 10.32.255.255 would be used for inter country links. Addresses from 10.0.0.0 to 10.31.255.255 would be used for inter-region links. Ip address utilization in this range is acknowledged to be quite sparse.

You'll note that this scheme breaks when you have coverage in more than 15 cities. Therefor the scheme needs to be adjusted based upon how many locations you have, how many buildings in each location, and how many floors in each location. It doesn't matter how the bit map is structured, just so long as some rule for aggregation is followed as the level of aggregation grows.

At each site, I've been refining a strategy for vlan and ip address block assignments. Sixteen is a base(2) number, and therefore easy to aggregate. I assign 16 /24 blocks and 16 VLANs per site using a strategy similar to:

+0	Subnets for /30 links
+1	Servers
+2	Server ILO Ports
+3	SAN, iSCSI Traffic
+4	Voice Servers & Gateways
+5	Lab/Classroom/Testing
+6	Spare, To Be Assigned
+7	DMZ
+8	Workstations
+9	Phones
+10	Wireless Corporate
+11	Wireless Phones
+12	Wireless Guest
+13	Wired Guest
+14	Printers
+15	Network Management

The first set of eight blocks are server related. The second block of eight are client related. If an organization has mulitiple floors, conceivably a sequential block of eight would be assigned to each additional floor.

For VLAN numbering, I have a couple of different schemes. One scheme starts at VLAN 100 and assigns vlans 100 through 115 to each /24.

A second scheme is more complicated. In some locations, I use VRF's to segragate and route traffic. VRF's are handy when you have guest traffic you want to keep separate from corporate traffic. Cisco has a number of SRND documents on how this is accomplished. Anyway, I've used up to 5 segragations: 1 global routing table plus four VRF's:

1XX	global		100
2XX	vrfExterior	200
3XX	vrfData		300
4XX	vrfVoice	400
5XX	vrfGuest	500

The first column is are the VLAN identifying numbers, the second is the VRF name, and the third column is the OSPF process number. By adding this numbering scheme to the VLAN types previously provided, the following table might be used, where column 1 is the VLAN ID, column 2 is a relative offset of a sequential VLAN numbering system, and the third column is the description:

	+0	Subnets for /30 links
301	+1	Servers
302	+2	Server ILO Ports
303	+3	SAN, iSCSI Traffic
304	+4	Voice Servers & Gateways
305	+5	Lab/Classroom/Testing
	+6	To Be Assigned
	+7	DMZ
308	+8	Workstations
309	+9	Phones
310	+10	Wireless Corporate
311	+11	Wireless Phones
512	+12	Wireless Guest
513	+13	Wired Guest
314	+14	Printers
115	+15	Network Management

Some don't have VLANs as they don't exist as VLANS, but are address ranges uses elsewhere at the site.

Here are some additional VLAN assignments I'll use:

  • 1: turned off, or not used at all
  • 2: trunk native VLAN
  • 3: 802.1x unauhtorized clients
  • 20 - 29: switch SPAN ports for various monitoring activities
  • 299: vrfExterior router to firewall exterior
  • 399: vrfInterior router to firewall interior
  • 599: vrfGuest router to firewall interior

Here is a finished table for showing address assignments for two different locations:

VLAN	Offset	BM Office	NY Office	
	+0	10.33.16.0	10.35.16.0	Subnets for /30 links and loopbacks
301	+1	10.33.17.0	10.35.17.0	Servers
302	+2	10.33.18.0	10.35.18.0	Server ILO Ports
303	+3	10.33.19.0	10.35.19.0	SAN, iSCSI Traffic
304	+4	10.33.20.0	10.35.20.0	Voice Servers & Gateways
305	+5	10.33.21.0	10.35.21.0	Lab/Classroom/Testing
	+6	10.33.22.0	10.35.22.0	To Be Assigned
	+7	10.33.23.0	10.35.23.0	DMZ
308	+8	10.33.24.0	10.35.24.0	Workstations
309	+9	10.33.25.0	10.35.25.0	Phones
310	+10	10.33.26.0	10.35.26.0	Wireless Corporate
311	+11	10.33.27.0	10.35.27.0	Wireless Phones
512	+12	10.33.28.0	10.35.28.0	Wireless Guest
513	+13	10.33.29.0	10.35.29.0	Wired Guest
314	+14	10.33.30.0	10.35.30.0	Printers
115	+15	10.33.31.0	10.35.31.0	Network Management
				
		Default Gateway is x.x.x.254		

This type of scheme, when implemented from the start, provides easy expansion of an organization's network, provides an ability to add protections between network devices, and simplifies inter-site routing.


2007 Jun 29 - Fri

One Unified Address Management, v1.3

I've updated the schema of my prototype address management database to reflect some additional relationships with VRFs and VLANs.

The address management schema is for a PostgreSQL 8.1 database.

Once I have the address tables populated, I'll want to generate zone files for DNS to facilitate informative traceroutes. There were a couple of useful suggestions on the Nanog mailing lists, one by Mark Tinka, and the other one by Joe Abley, the same person who did a paper on toolmaking at Nanog 26.


2007 May 16 - Wed

One Unified Address Management Schema v1.1

I did some more brainstorming on how I wanted to visually represent a network along with it's address structure. I've incorporated some additional tables into the design to handle a hierarchical network map.

The core of the database schema is still represented by the host, interface, circuit, address, location, organization, and ianaiftype tables.

The Image table contains references to all pictures of hosts and locations. All other associated tables reference the images managed by this table.

The WeatherMap group of tables allows a Network Weathermap to be defined for a collection of circuits. By requesting a certain weathermap, the WeathermapCircuit table provides a list of associated circuits. The circuit links to interfaces and their respective hosts. By looking for hosts in the HostOnImage table that reference the same hostid and imageid, a weather map can be automatically drawn with the appropriate host picture from the HostImage table along with the collected interface statistics.

The HostType table represents names such as 'Router', 'Switch', 'Server', 'Access Point', etc.

Two tables have been added to the Location group of tables. LocationImage represents images of locations: a building, a floor, a cabinet, a back panel, with each image suggesting a collection of sub-locations. The LocationOnImage table provides the ability to click on an active area on LocationImage and drill down to the more specific LocationImage.


2007 May 15 - Tue

One Unified Address Management (OUAM)

For the longest time, I thought that the sum total of the ip address management solutions out there revolved around NorthStar and IPplan, neither of which really were as robust as I'd like.

A recent 'net search comes up with some different candidates. A IP Addressing Space Management Applications? has some interesting pointers to IP Address Management solutions, both Open Source as well as Commercial. One Open Source solution that appeared to be a stand out is Carnegie Mellon's Network Registration/Network Monitoring solution. It is under active development. Internet2 has some links to solutions that handle various combinations of Agents, Registration, and Active/Passive Detection.

Some of the above actually crosses over into the region of Network Authentication, of which Internet2's SALSAK is trying to rigorize through a Poicy Framework. Their second draft has better details, in my opinion.

So I can come back to this later, in following the various links from an earlier mentioned table, I came across PacketFence which is a Network Access Control (NAC) solution wrapped up in a VMWare deployment package.

When coming up with an IP Address Management Solution, BT Diamond IP has a handy guide to Best Practices for Next-Generation IP Address Management.

During my initial thoughts of what I'd like to see, I was focussing more on address management, floor diagrams, and port management than on DNS and DHCP. I figured DNS would be easy by simply exporting bind files on an as required basis. I havn't considered DHCP integration yet, but should be straight forward with dhcp configuration file exports, or data base lookups.

I had put together a schema diagram of what I was thinking of for ip address and facilities management.

Here is a description of the various links:

  • Host -> Location: every host is associated with a particular location, floor, rack, shelf, etc
  • Interface -> Host: an interface, and its sub-interfaces are associated with a host
  • Interface -> Address:
    • an interface, or sub-interface will have an associated address
    • an interface will need multiple sub interfaces to contain additional addresses
    • these sub-interfaces may simply be 'secondary address blocks', or secondary addresses, or vlans
  • Interface -> Circuit: an interface is associated with a particular circuit, patch panel, connector, etc
  • Circuit -> Address:
    • a circuit may reference an address or address range that can be used to find attached interfaces, hosts, and circuits (and is recursive by looking at subnets and contained addresses)
    • thus routed address blocks shouldn't be referenced this way, only a circuit with ip endpoints should have an address reference
  • Port -> Address: for ports routed to different locations, or are routed, this is where this is documented, such as on NAT.d addresses (eg port 80 (http) or port 25 (smtp))
  • Address -> Organization: Every address range is associated with a controlling organization

Some of the tables have 'self' links. This provides an ability for defining a hierarchy of relationships:

  • Address: address blocks can be subdivided down to a /32
  • Interface: a phsysical interface may be divided into sub-interfaces
  • Circuit: a circuit may be composed of sub-circuits, wire going from wall jack to IDF to MDF to IDF to wall jack
  • Location: a building may have multiple floors, a server room may have multiple racks, a rack will have multiple 'U' locations

Here is a sql schema file to go along with the diagram. It is based upon PostgreSQL as it has native data types for handling ip addresses and mac addresses.


Import IANAifType

From the web page http://www.iana.org/assignments/ianaiftype-mib there is an list of interface types. Early portions of this list are incorporated into /usr/share/cricket/util/genDevConfig. The full list is parsed and imported into the database.

Conversion

Create a perl program ianaif.pl:

#! /usr/bin/perlwhile ( <STDIN> ) {
  $_ =~ /^\s+([\-\w]+)\s*\((\d+)\),?(\s*|\s*--\s(.+?))\s*$/;
  print "insert into ianaiftype (ianaiftypeid, name, description) values ($2, '$1', '$4');\n";
}

Create a file 'ianaif.txt' with the mildly edited content from web site. Run the perl script to create an imort file:

perl ianaif.pl < ianaif.txt > ianaif.import

Import into the database:

su - postgres
psql oneunified
\i ianaif.import
\q

Here is the raw data:

                   other(1),          -- none of the following
                   regular1822(2),
                   hdh1822(3),
                   ddnX25(4),
                   rfc877x25(5),
                   ethernetCsmacd(6), -- for all ethernet-like interfaces,
                   iso88023Csmacd(7), -- Deprecated, use ethernetCsmacd (6)
                   iso88024TokenBus(8),
                   iso88025TokenRing(9),
                   iso88026Man(10),
                   starLan(11), -- Deprecated,  use ethernetCsmacd (6)
                   proteon10Mbit(12),
                   proteon80Mbit(13),
                   hyperchannel(14),
                   fddi(15),
                   lapb(16),
                   sdlc(17),
                   ds1(18),            -- DS1-MIB
                   e1(19),             -- Obsolete see DS1-MIB
                   basicISDN(20),
                   primaryISDN(21),
                   propPointToPointSerial(22), -- proprietary serial
                   ppp(23),
                   softwareLoopback(24),
                   eon(25),            -- CLNP over IP 
                   ethernet3Mbit(26),
                   nsip(27),           -- XNS over IP
                   slip(28),           -- generic SLIP
                   ultra(29),          -- ULTRA technologies
                   ds3(30),            -- DS3-MIB
                   sip(31),            -- SMDS, coffee
                   frameRelay(32),     -- DTE only. 
                   rs232(33),
                   para(34),           -- parallel-port
                   arcnet(35),         -- arcnet
                   arcnetPlus(36),     -- arcnet plus
                   atm(37),            -- ATM cells
                   miox25(38),
                   sonet(39),          -- SONET or SDH 
                   x25ple(40),
                   iso88022llc(41),
                   localTalk(42),
                   smdsDxi(43),
                   frameRelayService(44),  -- FRNETSERV-MIB
                   v35(45),
                   hssi(46),
                   hippi(47),
                   modem(48),          -- Generic modem
                   aal5(49),           -- AAL5 over ATM
                   sonetPath(50),
                   sonetVT(51),
                   smdsIcip(52),       -- SMDS InterCarrier Interface
                   propVirtual(53),    -- proprietary virtual/internal
                   propMultiplexor(54),-- proprietary multiplexing
                   ieee80212(55),      -- 100BaseVG
                   fibreChannel(56),   -- Fibre Channel
                   hippiInterface(57), -- HIPPI interfaces     
                   frameRelayInterconnect(58), -- Obsolete, use frameRelay(32) or frameRelayService(44)
                   aflane8023(59),     -- ATM Emulated LAN for 802.3
                   aflane8025(60),     -- ATM Emulated LAN for 802.5
                   cctEmul(61),        -- ATM Emulated circuit          
                   fastEther(62),      -- Obsoleted, use ethernetCsmacd (6)
                   isdn(63),           -- ISDN and X.25           
                   v11(64),            -- CCITT V.11/X.21             
                   v36(65),            -- CCITT V.36                  
                   g703at64k(66),      -- CCITT G703 at 64Kbps
                   g703at2mb(67),      -- Obsolete see DS1-MIB
                   qllc(68),           -- SNA QLLC                    
                   fastEtherFX(69),    -- Obsoleted, use  ethernetCsmacd (6)
                   channel(70),        -- channel                     
                   ieee80211(71),      -- radio spread spectrum       
                   ibm370parChan(72),  -- IBM System 360/370 OEMI Channel
                   escon(73),          -- IBM Enterprise Systems Connection
                   dlsw(74),           -- Data Link Switching
                   isdns(75),          -- ISDN S/T interface
                   isdnu(76),          -- ISDN U interface
                   lapd(77),           -- Link Access Protocol D
                   ipSwitch(78),       -- IP Switching Objects
                   rsrb(79),           -- Remote Source Route Bridging
                   atmLogical(80),     -- ATM Logical Port
                   ds0(81),            -- Digital Signal Level 0
                   ds0Bundle(82),      -- group of ds0s on the same ds1
                   bsc(83),            -- Bisynchronous Protocol
                   async(84),          -- Asynchronous Protocol
                   cnr(85),            -- Combat Net Radio
                   iso88025Dtr(86),    -- ISO 802.5r DTR
                   eplrs(87),          -- Ext Pos Loc Report Sys
                   arap(88),           -- Appletalk Remote Access Protocol
                   propCnls(89),       -- Proprietary Connectionless Protocol
                   hostPad(90),        -- CCITT-ITU X.29 PAD Protocol
                   termPad(91),        -- CCITT-ITU X.3 PAD Facility
                   frameRelayMPI(92),  -- Multiproto Interconnect over FR
                   x213(93),           -- CCITT-ITU X213
                   adsl(94),           -- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop
                   radsl(95),          -- Rate-Adapt. Digital Subscriber Loop
                   sdsl(96),           -- Symmetric Digital Subscriber Loop
                   vdsl(97),           -- Very H-Speed Digital Subscrib. Loop
                   iso88025CRFPInt(98), -- ISO 802.5 CRFP
                   myrinet(99),        -- Myricom Myrinet
                   voiceEM(100),       -- voice recEive and transMit
                   voiceFXO(101),      -- voice Foreign Exchange Office
                   voiceFXS(102),      -- voice Foreign Exchange Station
                   voiceEncap(103),    -- voice encapsulation
                   voiceOverIp(104),   -- voice over IP encapsulation
                   atmDxi(105),        -- ATM DXI
                   atmFuni(106),       -- ATM FUNI
                   atmIma (107),       -- ATM IMA     
                   pppMultilinkBundle(108), -- PPP Multilink Bundle
                   ipOverCdlc (109),   -- IBM ipOverCdlc
                   ipOverClaw (110),   -- IBM Common Link Access to Workstn
                   stackToStack (111), -- IBM stackToStack
                   virtualIpAddress (112), -- IBM VIPA
                   mpc (113),          -- IBM multi-protocol channel support
                   ipOverAtm (114),    -- IBM ipOverAtm
                   iso88025Fiber (115), -- ISO 802.5j Fiber Token Ring
                   tdlc (116),        -- IBM twinaxial data link control
                   gigabitEthernet (117), -- Obsoleted, use ethernetCsmacd (6)
                   hdlc (118),         -- HDLC
                   lapf (119),        -- LAP F
                   v37 (120),        -- V.37
                   x25mlp (121),       -- Multi-Link Protocol
                   x25huntGroup (122), -- X25 Hunt Group
                   trasnpHdlc (123),   -- Transp HDLC
                   interleave (124),   -- Interleave channel
                   fast (125),         -- Fast channel
                   ip (126),        -- IP (for APPN HPR in IP networks)
                   docsCableMaclayer (127),  -- CATV Mac Layer
                   docsCableDownstream (128), -- CATV Downstream interface
                   docsCableUpstream (129),  -- CATV Upstream interface
                   a12MppSwitch (130), -- Avalon Parallel Processor
                   tunnel (131),       -- Encapsulation interface
                   coffee (132),       -- coffee pot
                   ces (133),          -- Circuit Emulation Service
                   atmSubInterface (134), -- ATM Sub Interface
                   l2vlan (135),       -- Layer 2 Virtual LAN using 802.1Q
                   l3ipvlan (136),     -- Layer 3 Virtual LAN using IP
                   l3ipxvlan (137),    -- Layer 3 Virtual LAN using IPX
                   digitalPowerline (138), -- IP over Power Lines 
                   mediaMailOverIp (139), -- Multimedia Mail over IP
                   dtm (140),        -- Dynamic syncronous Transfer Mode
                   dcn (141),    -- Data Communications Network
                   ipForward (142),    -- IP Forwarding Interface
                   msdsl (143),       -- Multi-rate Symmetric DSL
                   ieee1394 (144), -- IEEE1394 High Performance Serial Bus
                   if-gsn (145),       --   HIPPI-6400 
                   dvbRccMacLayer (146), -- DVB-RCC MAC Layer
                   dvbRccDownstream (147),  -- DVB-RCC Downstream Channel
                   dvbRccUpstream (148),  -- DVB-RCC Upstream Channel
                   atmVirtual (149),   -- ATM Virtual Interface
                   mplsTunnel (150),   -- MPLS Tunnel Virtual Interface
                   srp (151), -- Spatial Reuse Protocol 
                   voiceOverAtm (152),  -- Voice Over ATM
                   voiceOverFrameRelay (153),   -- Voice Over Frame Relay 
                   idsl (154),  -- Digital Subscriber Loop over ISDN
                   compositeLink (155),  -- Avici Composite Link Interface
                   ss7SigLink (156),     -- SS7 Signaling Link 
                   propWirelessP2P (157),  --  Prop. P2P wireless interface
                   frForward (158),    -- Frame Forward Interface
                   rfc1483 (159), -- Multiprotocol over ATM AAL5
                   usb (160),  -- USB Interface
                   ieee8023adLag (161),  -- IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregate
                   bgppolicyaccounting (162), -- BGP Policy Accounting
                   frf16MfrBundle (163), -- FRF .16 Multilink Frame Relay 
                   h323Gatekeeper (164), -- H323 Gatekeeper
                   h323Proxy (165), -- H323 Voice and Video Proxy
                   mpls (166), -- MPLS                   
                   mfSigLink (167), -- Multi-frequency signaling link
                   hdsl2 (168), -- High Bit-Rate DSL - 2nd generation
                   shdsl (169), -- Multirate HDSL2
                   ds1FDL (170), -- Facility Data Link 4Kbps on a DS1
                   pos (171), -- Packet over SONET/SDH Interface
                   dvbAsiIn (172), -- DVB-ASI Input
                   dvbAsiOut (173), -- DVB-ASI Output 
                   plc (174), -- Power Line Communtications
                   nfas (175), -- Non Facility Associated Signaling
                   tr008 (176), -- TR008
                   gr303RDT (177), -- Remote Digital Terminal
                   gr303IDT (178), -- Integrated Digital Terminal
                   isup (179), -- ISUP
                   propDocsWirelessMaclayer (180), -- Cisco proprietary Maclayer
                   propDocsWirelessDownstream (181), -- Cisco proprietary Downstream
                   propDocsWirelessUpstream (182), -- Cisco proprietary Upstream
                   hiperlan2 (183), -- HIPERLAN Type 2 Radio Interface
                   propBWAp2Mp (184), -- PropBroadbandWirelessAccesspt2multipt
                   sonetOverheadChannel (185), -- SONET Overhead Channel
                   digitalWrapperOverheadChannel (186), -- Digital Wrapper
                   aal2 (187), -- ATM adaptation layer 2
                   radioMAC (188), -- MAC layer over radio links
                   atmRadio (189), -- ATM over radio links   
                   imt (190), -- Inter Machine Trunks
                   mvl (191), -- Multiple Virtual Lines DSL
                   reachDSL (192), -- Long Reach DSL
                   frDlciEndPt (193), -- Frame Relay DLCI End Point
                   atmVciEndPt (194), -- ATM VCI End Point
                   opticalChannel (195), -- Optical Channel
                   opticalTransport (196), -- Optical Transport
                   propAtm (197), --  Proprietary ATM       
                   voiceOverCable (198), -- Voice Over Cable Interface
                   infiniband (199), -- Infiniband
                   teLink (200), -- TE Link
                   q2931 (201), -- Q.2931
                   virtualTg (202), -- Virtual Trunk Group
                   sipTg (203), -- SIP Trunk Group
                   sipSig (204), -- SIP Signaling   
                   docsCableUpstreamChannel (205), -- CATV Upstream Channel
                   econet (206), -- Acorn Econet
                   pon155 (207), -- FSAN 155Mb Symetrical PON interface
                   pon622 (208), -- FSAN622Mb Symetrical PON interface
                   bridge (209), -- Transparent bridge interface
                   linegroup (210), -- Interface common to multiple lines     
                   voiceEMFGD (211), -- voice E&M Feature Group D
                   voiceFGDEANA (212), -- voice FGD Exchange Access North American
                   voiceDID (213), -- voice Direct Inward Dialing
                   mpegTransport (214), -- MPEG transport interface
                   sixToFour (215), -- 6to4 interface (DEPRECATED)
                   gtp (216), -- GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol)
                   pdnEtherLoop1 (217), -- Paradyne EtherLoop 1
                   pdnEtherLoop2 (218), -- Paradyne EtherLoop 2
                   opticalChannelGroup (219), -- Optical Channel Group 
                   homepna (220), -- HomePNA ITU-T G.989       
                   gfp (221), -- Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) 
                   ciscoISLvlan (222), -- Layer 2 Virtual LAN using Cisco ISL
                   actelisMetaLOOP (223), -- Acteleis proprietary MetaLOOP High Speed Link 
                   fcipLink (224), -- FCIP Link  
                   rpr (225), -- Resilient Packet Ring Interface Type
                   qam (226), -- RF Qam Interface
                   lmp (227), -- Link Management Protocol
                   cblVectaStar (228), -- Cambridge Broadband Limited VectaStar
                   docsCableMCmtsDownstream (229), -- CATV Modular CMTS Downstream Interface
                   adsl2 (230), -- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop Version 2
                   macSecControlledIF (231), -- MACSecControlled 
                   macSecUncontrolledIF (232), -- MACSecUncontrolled
                   aviciOpticalEther (233), -- Avici Optical Ethernet Aggregate
                   atmbond (234), -- atmbond 
                   voiceFGDOS (235), -- voice FGD Operator Services
                   mocaVersion1 (236), -- MultiMedia over Coax Alliance (MoCA) Interface
                   ieee80216WMAN (237), -- IEEE 802.16 WMAN interface
                   adsl2plus (238), -- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop Version 2, 
                   dvbRcsMacLayer (239), -- DVB-RCS MAC Layer
                   dvbTdm (240), -- DVB Satellite TDM
                   dvbRcsTdma (241), -- DVB-RCS TDMA
                   x86Laps (242) -- LAPS based on ITU-T X.86/Y.1323   



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Disclaimer: This site may include market analysis. All ideas, opinions, and/or forecasts, expressed or implied herein, are for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a recommendation to invest, trade, and/or speculate in the markets. Any investments, trades, and/or speculations made in light of the ideas, opinions, and/or forecasts, expressed or implied herein, are committed at your own risk, financial or otherwise.